Zespoły taneczne zatrudniające tancerzy niepełnosprawnych

Dziś trochę o tańcu osób niepełnosprawnych – od razu mówię, że mam na myśli taniec wysokiej jakości, nie takie zabawy integracyjne! 🙂 I może tekst trochę poważniejszy, ale takich też tu trochę będzie.

Ciało ludzkie w tańcu od początku XX wieku przeszło ogromną przemianę – od lekkiego i zwiewnego w tańcu klasycznym po ciężkie, eksplorujące swoje możliwości w tańcu współczesnym. To, co mimo tych przemian pozostało niezmienne, to wymóg zachowania silnego i zdrowego ciała zdolnego do przekraczania typowych dla danego okresu granic. Aż do lat 60. XX wieku, kiedy rozwijać się zaczął taniec osób niepełnosprawnych, w którym choć przymknięto nieco oko na zdrowie, to wymagano siły nie tylko ciała, ale również charakteru, a granice, które przekroczyli tancerze z niepełnosprawnością szokowały nieprzygotowaną na to publiczność.

Ruch i taniec osób niepełnosprawnych do drugiej połowy XX wieku traktowany był jako dodatek do procesu rehabilitacji oraz element integracji społeczności dotkniętej chorobami różnego rodzaju. W drugiej połowie XX wieku popularność zdobywać zaczął taniec integracyjny bazujący na tańcu towarzyskim, w którym co najmniej jedna osoba w parze porusza się na wózku inwalidzkim. Od 1977 roku zaczęto organizować turnieje w tej dziedzinie, rozważano również włączenie tej kategorii do zakresu paraolimpiady. Równolegle rozwijał się taniec modern wykonywany przez osoby niepełnosprawne za sprawą instruktora tańca Hilde Holgera, który w 1968 roku wystawił pierwszy spektakl, w którym udział wzięły osoby z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną. Wśród jego uczniów był Wolfgang Stange, który założył pierwszy zespół zrzeszający tancerzy z niepełnosprawnością – Amici Dance Theatre Company

Pojawienie się tancerzy niepełnosprawnych w przestrzeni teatru, na scenie, tworząc spektakle taneczne z uznanymi pełnosprawnymi tancerzami wzbudziło wśród ówczesnych krytyków wiele emocji. Wielu z nich uważało, że jest to „przegląd dziwolągów”, „sztuka ofiar”, wymieniało zauważone u tancerzy niesprawności jak amputowane kończyny czy poruszanie się o kulach lub na wózku. Nie zraziło to tancerzy i współpracujących choreografów, a obecne zespoły mające w swoich szeregach osoby z niepełnosprawnościami wystawiają spektakle jeżdżąc z nimi po całym świecie.

Axis Dance Company

Jednym z najprężniej działających zespołów jest właśnie AXIS Dance Company, który ma w swoim repertuarze ponad 60 spektakli oraz zdobył siedem nagród Isadora Duncan Dance Awards.  Tancerze zespołu są wykształceni w kierunku tańca, a ich spektakle zdobywają zarówno uznanie publiczności i krytyków, jak i wiele nagród. Tworzony repertuar ma na celu wniesienie dużej wartości artystycznej, tak by spektakle AXIS Dance Company traktowane były na równi z baletami i spektaklami tanecznymi tworzonymi przez zespoły zatrudniające wyłącznie sprawne osoby. Twórcom zespołu, jak i jego obecnej kadrze zarządzającej zależy, żeby odejść od wizerunku twórczości osób niepełnosprawnych jako tej mniej wartościowej i tworzonej przez „biedne ofiary” jak określali kiedyś ją krytycy, ponieważ niepełnosprawni twórcy bardzo często nie tylko przeszli taką samą edukację jak osoby zdrowe, ale posiadają również zbliżone umiejętności techniczne poszerzone o umiejętność pokonywania pewnych ograniczeń w celu uzyskania zbliżonego efektu. 

I kto tu jest niesprawny…?

Rozwój tańca osób niepełnosprawnych pozwolił na odejście od postrzegania ich wyłącznie przez pryzmat medyczny. Twór, który początkowo był hybrydą nauk medycznych, socjologii zdrowia, psychologii i tańca z czasem wyodrębnił zarówno taniec integracyjny, taniec służący terapii, jak i taniec o najwyższej jakości technicznej i artystycznej w wykonaniu niepełnosprawnych osób . Pozwoliły na to przede wszystkim przemiany w tańcu, które dokonały się w XX wieku za sprawą rozwoju tańca modern i postmodern. Przesunięcie granic wśród widzów i wprowadzenie osób na wózkach na scenę pozwala wyjść poza postrzeganie ich tańca wyłącznie jako formy terapii, ale po prostu na stanie się tancerzami. Oglądając powstające obecnie spektakle takich zespołów jak na przykład Candoco Dance Company zauważyć można, że wszyscy tancerze pojawiający się na scenie, bez względu na to czy są pełnosprawni, czy niepełnosprawni, prezentują bardzo wysoki poziom techniczny tańca, co sprawia, że widz przestaje skupiać swoją uwagę na osobach z niepełnosprawnościami motorycznymi, ponieważ w pewnym sensie one przestają istnieć. Tancerze wykonują ewolucje i partnerowania, które są niedostępne dla wielu zdrowych, którzy nie zajmują się tańcem, dzięki czemu środek ciężkości określenia „niepełnosprawni” zostaje w trakcie spektaklu w relacji tancerze-widzowie przesunięty na tych drugich.

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25 Replies to “Zespoły taneczne zatrudniające tancerzy niepełnosprawnych

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